Speed grades

Since the first I2C spec release (which dates back from 1982), a couple of improvements have been made. In 1992, a newer version of the I2C spec was released. This new spec contained some additional sections covering FAST mode and  10-bit addressing.

In the FAST mode, the physical bus parameters are not altered. The protocol, bus levels, capacitive load etc. remain unchanged. However, the data rate has been increased to 400 Kbit/s and a constraint has been set on the level of noise that can be present in the system. To accomplish this task, a number of changes have been made to the I2C bus timing.

Since all CBUS activities have been cancelled, there is no compatibility anymore with CBUS timing. The development of ICs with CBUS interface has long been stopped. The existing CBUS IC's are discontinued. Furthermore, the CBUS devices cannot handle these higher clock rates.

The input of the FAST mode devices all include Schmitttriggers to suppress noise. The output buffers include slope control for the falling edges of the SDA and SCL signals. If the power supply of a FAST mode device is switched off, the bus pins must be floating so that they do not obstruct the bus.

The pull-up resistor must be adapted. For loads up to 200 pF, a resistor is sufficient. For loads between 200pF and 400pF, a current source (active pull-up) is preferred.

High Speed Mode

High-speed mode (Hs-mode) devices offer a quantum  leap in I2C-bus transfer speeds. Hs-mode devices can  transfer information at bit rates of up to 3.4 Mbit/s, yet they remain fully downward compatible with Fast- or Standard-mode (F/S-mode) devices for bi-directional communication in a mixed-speed bus system. With the exception that arbitration and clock synchronization is not performed during the Hs-mode transfer, the same serial bus protocol and data format is maintained as with the F/S-mode system. Depending on the application, new devices may have a Fast or Hs-mode I2C-bus interface, although Hs-mode devices are preferred as they can be designed-in to a greater number of applications.
High speed transfer

To achieve a bit transfer of up to 3.4 Mbit/s the following improvements have been made to the regular I 2 C-bus specification:
Hs-mode master devices have an open-drain output buffer for the SDAH signal and a combination of an open-drain pull-down and current-source pull-up circuit on the SCLH output (1) . This current-source circuit shortens the rise time of the SCLH signal. Only the current-source of one master is enabled at any one time, and only during Hs-mode.
No arbitration or clock synchronization is performed during Hs-mode transfer in multi-master systems, which speeds-up bit handling capabilities. The arbitration procedure always finishes after a preceding master code transmission in F/S-mode.
Hs-mode master devices generate a serial clock signal with a HIGH to LOW ratio of 1 to 2. This relieves the timing requirements for set-up and hold times.
As an option, Hs-mode master devices can have a built-in bridge (1) . During Hs-mode transfer, the high speed data (SDAH) and high-speed serial clock (SCLH) lines of Hs-mode devices are separated by this bridge from the SDA and SCL lines of F/S-mode devices. This reduces the capacitive load of the SDAH and SCLH lines resulting in faster rise and fall times.
The only difference between Hs-mode slave devices and F/S-mode slave devices is the speed at which they operate. Hs-mode slaves have open-drain output buffers on the SCLH and SDAH outputs. Optional pull-down transistors on the SCLH pin can be used to stretch the LOW level of the SCLH signal, although this is only allowed after the acknowledge bit in Hs-mode transfers.
The inputs of Hs-mode devices incorporate spike suppression and a Schmitt trigger at the SDAH and SCLH inputs.
The output buffers of Hs-mode devices incorporate slope control of the falling edges of the SDAH and SCLH signals.

The figure below shows the physical I 2 C-bus configuration in a system with only Hs-mode devices. Pins SDA and SCL on the master devices are only used in mixed-speed bus systems and are not connected in an Hs-mode only system. In such cases, these pins can be used for other functions.

Optional series resistors Rs protect the I/O stages of the I2C-bus devices from high-voltage spikes on the bus lines and minimize ringing and interference. Pull-up resistors Rp maintain the SDAH and SCLH lines at a HIGH level when the bus is free and ensure the signals are pulled up from a LOW to a HIGH level within the required rise time. For higher capacitive bus-line loads (>100 pF), the resistor Rp can be replaced by external current source pull-ups to meet the rise time requirements. Unless proceeded by an acknowledge bit, the rise time of the SCLH clock pulses in Hs-mode transfers is shortened by the internal current-source pull-up circuit MCS of the active master.

© Vincent Himpe 2016